Part 8: Over 2,000 Studies Show Monsanto GM Food is Disastrous to Health (1,951-2029)

Part 8 Over 2,000 Studies Show Monsanto GM Food is Disastrous to Health (1,951-2029) - Photo
Part 8 Over 2,000 Studies Show Monsanto GM Food is Disastrous to Health (1,951-2029) - Photo
Part 8 Over 2,000 Studies Show Monsanto GM Food is Disastrous to Health (1,951-2029) - Photo 1
Part 8 Over 2,000 Studies Show Monsanto GM Food is Disastrous to Health (1,951-2029) – Photo 1
This compilation is a sample of the scientific references including over 2,000 studies, surveys, and analyses that suggest various adverse impacts and potential adverse impacts of genetically engineered (GE/GMO) crops, foods and related pesticides. – Monsanto

Monsanto – This list contains references regarding health impacts, environmental impacts, including impact of non-target organisms (NTOs), resistance of target organisms, pesticide drift, genetic contamination, horizontal gene transfer, unintended effects, as well as references regarding yields, social impact, ethics, economics and regulations.

In most cases, links are provided to the abstracts for the references or links to sites where the study can be purchased.

GMO SCIENCE & RESEARCH LIST 1951 – 2029

  1. Brian Wynne, Fern Wickson (2012) Reply to J.N. Perry et al EMBO Volume 13, Issue 6 01 June pp 471 – 576  http://embor.embopress.org
  2. Xia, H., Lu, B.R., Su, J., Chen, R., Rong, J., Song, Z., Wang, F. (2009) Normal expression of insect-resistant transgene in progeny of common wild rice crossed with genetically modified rice: its implication in ecological biosafety assessment. Theoretical and applied genetics, 119(4): 635-644.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  1. Xiao, Y.H., S.Q. Zhu, X.H. Li, and P. Jiang. (2007) Influences of the Herbicide Glyphosate-Isopropylammonium Solution on Heart Activities of Bufo Gargarizans. Acta Zoologica Sinica 53 (4) : 668-673. 53, no. 4 (2007): 668-73.  http://www.currentzoology.org
  1. XIAO Yong-hong, LIAO Yong-qiang, ZHOU Chang-xu, JIANG Ping (2007) Chronic Toxicities of Herbicide Glyphosate on Bufo gargarizans Sichuan Journal of Zoology Vol.26 No.2  http://www.scdwzz.com
  1. Xiao Yonghong, Wan Wan Long, Luo Sicheng, Yincai Ping, & Jin Long (2007). Glyphosate stress of Toad (Bufo gargarizans) nerve impulse generation and conduction of influence. Ecol , 3  http://www.cnki.com
  1. Xu W, Li L, Lu J, Luo Y, Shang Y, Huang K. (2011) Analysis of caecal microbiota in rats fed with genetically modified rice by real-time quantitative PCR. J Food Sci. Jan-Feb;76(1):M88-93.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  1. Xue K, Deng S, Wang R, Yan F, Xu C. (2008) Leaf surface factors of transgenic Bt cotton associated with the feeding behaviors of cotton aphids: a case study on non-target effects. Sci China C Life Sci. 2008 Feb;51(2):145-56.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  1. Sushama Singh Yadav, Sarbani Giri, Utsab Singha, Freeman Boro, Anirudha Giri. (2013) Toxic and genotoxic effects of Roundup on tadpoles of the Indian skittering frog (Euflictis cyanophlyctis) in the presence and absence of predator stress. Aquatic Toxicology 132-133, 1-8  http://www.sciencedirect.com
  1. Yamada, T., Kremer, R.J., Camargo e Castro, P.R., and Wood, B.W. (2009) Glyphosate interactions with physiology, nutrition, and diseases of plants: Threat to agricultural sustainability? European J. Agron. 31:111-113.  http://stopogm.net
  1. Nan Xu Yang, (2000). Affect of herbicide “glyphosate” toad peripheral erythrocyte micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities. Wenzhou Teachers College , 21 (6), 57-58.  http://www.cqvip.com
  1. YANG, C., WANG, Z., YANG, X. and LU, B.-R. (2014), Segregation distortion affected by transgenes in early generations of rice crop-weed hybrid progeny: Implications for assessing potential evolutionary impacts from transgene flow into wild relatives. Journal of Systematics and Evolution.  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com
  1. Yanniccari, M., Istilart, C., Giménez, D. O., & Castro, A. M. (2015). Inheritance of glyphosate resistance in Lolium perenne and hybrids with Lolium multiflorum. Crop Protection, 71, 72-78.  http://www.sciencedirect.com
  1. W. E. Yates, N. B. Akesson and D. E. Bayer (1978) Drift of Glyphosate Sprays Applied with Aerial and Ground Equipment Weed ScienceVol. 26, No. 6 (Nov.), pp. 597-604  http://www.jstor.org
  1. Dehua Chen Guoyou Ye, Changqin Yang, Yuan Chen, Yunkang Wu (2004) Effect after introducing Bacillus thuringiensis gene on nitrogen metabolism in cotton. Field Crops Research, Volume 87, Issues 2–3, 10 May, Pages 235–244.  http://www.sciencedirect.com
  1. Eduardo Rodríguez Yoke (2013) Ethical topics in international research with transgenic food. Acta bioeth. vol.19 no.2 Santiago nov.  http://www.scielo.cl
  1. Yoshimura, Y., Beckie, H. J. & Matsuo, K. (2006) Transgenic oilseed rape along transportation routes and port of Vancouver in western Canada. Environ. Biosafety Res., 5, 67–75.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  1. You, M. J., Shin, G. W., & Lee, C. S. (2015). Clostridium tertium Bacteremia in a Patient with Glyphosate Ingestion. The American journal of case reports, 16, 4.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  1. Younan, H. Q. (2013). Screening of Exist Genetically Modified Elements in Local and Commercial Rice Available in Baghdad Markets Using PCR and Real-time PCR. Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences 5(6): 302-307.    http://maxwellsci.com
  1. Fiona Young, Dao Ho, Danielle Glynn and Vicki Edwards (2015) Endocrine disruption and cytotoxicity of glyphosate and roundup in human JAr cells in vitro. Integrative Pharmacology, Toxicology and Genotoxicology   Volume 1(1): 12-19  http://www.gmoevidence.com
  1. Yousef MI, Salem MH, Ibrahim HZ, Helmi S, Seehy MA, Bertheussen K. (1995) Toxic effects of carbofuran and glyphosate on semen characteristics in rabbits. J Environ Sci Health B. Jul;30(4):513-34.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  1. Qin Yu, Andrew Cairns, Stephen Powles (2007) Glyphosate, paraquat and ACCase multiple herbicide resistance evolved in a Lolium rigidum biotype Planta January, Volume 225, Issue 2, pp 499-513  http://link.springer.com
  1. Yu Hui, Zhao Wen-hong, Zhou Lia-hua, Liu Chun-fang, Jiang Cheng-mei (2013) The Antagonistic Effects of Tea Polyphenols on Damage of Mouse Sertoli Cells Induced by Glyphosate “Journal of Nutrition” 2013 Section 3.  http://www.cqvip.com
  1. Yuan YG, GeF. (2010) Effects of transgenic Bt crops on non-target soil animals Ying Yong Sheng Ta iXue Bao.(JournalofAppliedEcology) 21(5):1339-45.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  1. Yuan Y, Ke X, Chen F, Krogh PH, Ge F. (2011) Decrease in catalase activity of Folsomia candida fed a Bt rice diet. Environ Pollut. Dec;159(12):3714-20.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  2. Yum HY, Lee SY, Lee KE, Sohn MH, Kim KE. (2005) Genetically modified and wild soybeans : an immunologic comparison. Allergy Asthma Proc. May-Jun 2005;26(3): 210-216.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  1. R Zablotowicz, K Reddy (2007) Nitrogenase activity, nitrogen content, and yield responses to glyphosate in glyphosate-resistant soybean Crop Protection Volume: 26, Issue: 3, Pages: 370-376  http://www.mendeley.com
  1. Zahm, Shelia Hoar; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Babbitt, Paula A.; Saal, Robert C.; Vaught, Jimmie B.; Cantor, Kenneth P.; Blair, Aaron (1990) A Case-Control Study of Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma and the Herbicide 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2, 4-D) in Eastern Nebraska  http://journals.lww.com
  1. Zahm, SH & Blair, A (1992). Pesticides and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma Cancer Research 52: 5485s-5488s.  http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org
  1. Zajac J, Chomoncik M, Kolarzyk E, Ogonowska D. (2012) [Controversial issue in biotechnology–students’ opinions]. Przegl Lek. ;69(8):459-62.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  1. Zakrevskii, VV & Zakrevskaya AV (2011) Modified organisms Plant Origin in Saint Petersburg. In 70 C Circumpolar medicine: the impact of environmental factors on the formation of human health: Proceedings of the International Scientific and Practical Conference. June 27-29, 2011.-Arkhangelsk Univ Northern State Medical University, 2011.-354 with. (p. 89).  http://91.122.224.35
  1. V.V. Zakrewsky (2011) GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS OF PLANT ORIGIN: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF THEIR USE IN FEEDING THE POPULATION OF RUSSIA Health and dietetic food 1, pages 49-58  http://medizdat.com
  1. Johann G. Zaller, Florian Heigl, Liliane Ruess & Andrea Grabmaier (2014) Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem. Scientific Reports 4, Article number: 5634  http://www.nature.com
  1. Zangerl AR, McKenna D, Wraight CL, Carroll M, Ficarello P, Warner Rand MR Berenbaum (2001) Effects of exposure to event 176 Bacillus thuringiensis corn pollen on monarch and blackswallowtail caterpillars under field conditions. Proc. National Academy of Science USA 98:11908-11912.  http://www.pnas.org
  1. Zapiola, M.L., Campbell, C.K., Butler, M.D., Mallory-Smith, C.A. (2008) Escape and establishment of transgenic glyphosate-resistant creeping bentgrass Agrostis stolonifera in Oregon, USA: a 4-year study. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45(2): 486-494.  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com
  1. ZAPIOLA, M. L. and MALLORY-SMITH, C. A. (2012), Crossing the divide: gene flow produces intergeneric hybrid in feral transgenic creeping bentgrass population. Molecular Ecology, 21: 4672  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com
  1. Tadeusz P. Żarski, Henryka Żarska, Teresa Majdecka (2011) THE CURRENT KNOWLEDGE ABOUT ECOTOXICOLOGICAL THREATS CONNECTED WITH GMO. Ochrona Środowiska i Zasobów Naturalnych nr 49, 2011 r.  http://www.ios.edu
  1. Gordana R. Zdjelar, Zorica T. Nikolić, Ana M. Marjanović Jeromela, Dušica D. Jovičić, Maja V. Ignjatov and Dragana N. Petrović (2011) ENVIRONMENTAL AND AGRONOMIC IMPACT OF THE HERBICIDE TOLERANT GM RAPESEED Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 56, No. 1, 2011 Pages 65-73  http://www.doiserbia.nb
  1. Zdjelar, G., & Nikolić, Z. (2012). Genetically Modified Crops–A Potential Risk for Sustainable Agriculture. In International Conference on BioScience: Biotechnology and Biodiversity-Step in the Future. The Fourth Joint UNS-PSU Conference, Novi Sad, Serbia, 18-20 June 2012. (pp. 289-297). Institut za Ratarstvo i Povrtarstvo & Semenarska Asocijacija Srbije.  http://semenarska
  1. Zdunczyk Z. (2001) In vivo experiments on the safety evaluation of GM components of feeds and foods. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences. 10(Supplement 1): 195-210.  http://yadda.icm.edu.pl
  1. Irena M Zdziarski, John W Edwards, Judy Carman, Adrian Jones, Marni Spillanie, Ysabella Van Sebille, Julie I Haynes (2012) GM feed and its effect on the stomach mucosa of rat. 6th Australian Health and Medical Research Congress 2012  http://ahmrc-2012.p.asnevents.com
  1. I.M. Zdziarski, J.W. Edwards, J.A. Carmanb, J.I. Haynes (2014) GM crops and the rat digestive tract: A critical review. Environment International Volume 73, December 2014, Pages 423–433  http://www.sciencedirect.com
  1. Zelaya IA, Owen MDK, Van Gessel MJ (2007) Transfer of glyphosate-resistance : Evidence of hybridisation in Conyza(Asteraceae). Amer. J. Botany 94:660-673  http://www.amjbot.org
  1. Zeller SL, Kalinina O, Brunner S, Keller Band Schmid B (2010):Transgene X environment interactions in genetically modified wheat. PLoSOne.Jul12;5(7):e11405  http://www.plosone.org
  1. Noah Zerbe (2004) Feeding the famine? American food aid and the GMO debate in Southern Africa Food Policy Volume 29, Issue 6, December 2004, Pages 593–608  http://www.sciencedirect.com
  1. Zhang, W., Shi, F., (2012). Do genetically modified crops affect animal reproduction? A review of the ongoing debate. Animal. 5 (7), 1048-1059.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  1. Haonan Zhang, Wen Tian Jing Zhao, Lin Jin Jun, Yang Chunhui ,Liu Yihua, Yang Shuwen, Wu Kongming, Wu Jinjie Cui, Bruce E.Tabashnik and Yidong Wu (2012) Diverse genetic basis of field-evolved resistance to Bt cotton in cotton bollworm from China. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.109, issue 26,pp. 10275-10280  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih
  1. Zhang L, Hou D, Chen X, Li D, Zhu L, Zhang Y, Li J, Bian Z, Liang X, Cai X, Yin Y, Wang C, Zhang T, Zhu D, Zhang D, Xu J, Chen Q, Ba Y, Liu J, Wang Q, Chen J, Wang J, Wang M, Zhang Q, Zhang J, Zen K, Zhang CY. (2012) Exogenous plant MIR168a specifically targets mammalian LDLRAP1: Evidence of cross-kingdom regulation by microRNA. Cell Res. 22(1):107-26(Erratumin:CellRes.2012 Jan;22(1):273-4)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  1. Liping Zhang, B. Rogers Leonard, Mao Chen, Thomas Clark, Konasale Anilkumar, Fangneng Huang (2014) Fitness costs and stability of Cry1Ab resistance in sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, Volume 117, March 2014, Pages 26–32.  http://www.sciencedirect.com
  1. Zhang ZK et al. (2015) Rational study of the safety of genetically modified food based on toxicology of chiral D – amino acid. China Science: Chemistry, 2015(1).    http://www.cnki.com
  1. Jennifer H. Zhao, Peter Ho, Hossein Azadi (2011) Benefits of Bt cotton counterbalanced by secondary pests? Perceptions of ecological change in China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. Volume 173, Issue 1-4,pp 985-994.    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  1. Zhao Wei, Cao Xi Yu, Hao Yanping, Zhang Dandan, & Zhang Yang. (2011) Study of glyphosate-induced oxidative damage in mice. Toxicology , 25 (5), 364-366.  http://www.cnki.com
  1. ZHAO Wenhong, YU Hui, ZHANG Jianguo, SHU li (2013) Effects of glyphosate on apoptosis and expressions of androgen-binding protein and vimentin mRNA in mouse Sertoli cells. Journal of Southern Medical University 2013, (11)  http://d.wanfangdata.com
  1. Zhao Hong, Yu Hui, Zhang Jianguo, & River City Mei (2013) Polyphenols glyphosate protective effect in mice Sertoli cells from oxidative damage and apoptosis. Third Military Medical University , 35 (19) 2037 – 2040.  http://aammt.tmmu.edu
  1. Zhao, F., Huang, Y., Guo, Y., Reddy, K. N., Lee, M. A., Fletcher, R. S., & Thomson, S. J. (2014). Early detection of crop injury from glyphosate on soybean and cotton using plant leaf hyperspectral data. Remote Sensing, 6(2), 1538-1563.  http://www.mdpi.com
  1. ZHENG Aiqin, QIANG Sheng & SONG Xiaoling (2014) Fitness of backcross between F1 (wild B. juncea × herbicide-resistant transgenic oilseed rape) and 5 conventional cultivate varieties. Chin J Appl Environ Biol 2014,20 ( 3 ) : 337-344  http://www.cibj.com
  1. ZHOU Jun-ying,WANG Chang-yong,XU Wei-li (2006) Comparison Between Transgenic Soybean and Non-Transgenic Soybean in Resistance to Stresses. Journal of Ecology and Rural Environment 2006-02.  http://en.cnki.com
  1. ZHOU Ze-wei et al. (2012) Comprehensive Evaluation on Functions & Safety of Imported GM Soybean Using BDI-GS System Soybean Science Oct. Vol. 31 No 5.    http://en.cnki.com
  1. Zhou J, Xiao K, Wei B, Wang Z, Tian Y, et al. (2014) Bioaccumulation of Cry1Ab Protein from an Herbivore Reduces Anti-Oxidant Enzyme Activities in Two Spider Species. PLoS ONE 9(1): e84724.  http://www.plosone.org
  1. ZHOU Ji, WEI Bao-Yang, LI Wen-Jing, WANG Zhi (2014) The effect of Cry1Ab protein in embryo development and chemical content in Pardosa pseudoannulata. Acta Arachnologica Sinica 2014, 23 (1).  http://d.wanfangdata.com
  1. Zhu, B., Lawrence, J. R., Warwick, S. I., Mason, P., Braun, L., Halfhill, M.D. and Stewart, C. N. (2004), Stable Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin content in interspecific F1 and backcross populations of wild Brassica rapa after Bt gene transfer. Molecular Ecology, 13: 237–241.  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com
  1. Zhu, W., Lu, H., Hill, J., Guo, X., Wang, H., & Wu, W. (2014). 13C pulse-chase labeling comparative assessment of the active methanogenic archaeal community composition in the transgenic and nontransgenic parental rice rhizospheres. FEMS microbiology ecology, 87(3), 746-756.  http://femsec.oxfordjournals.org
  1. Zhu, L., Li, W., Zha, J., & Wang, Z. (2014). Dicamba affects sex steroid hormone level and mRNA expression of related genes in adult rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) at environmentally relevant concentrations. Environmental toxicology. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com
  1. SG Zinoviev (2014) SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF BLOOD OF PIGS USING GM SOY IN THEIR DIETS. Animal Biology, 2014, vol. 16, № 1.  http://aminbiol.com
  1. Ziska LH, Gealy DR, Tomecek MB, Jackson AK, Black HL (2012) Recent and Projected Increases in Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Can Enhance Gene Flow between Wild and Genetically Altered Rice (Oryza sativa). PLoS ONE 7(5): e37522.  http://www.plosone.org
  1. Zobiole, L. H. S., R. S. de Oliveira, R. J. Kremer, A. S. Muniz, and A. de Oliveira. (2010) Nutrient Accumulation and Photosynthesis in Glyphosate-Resistant Soybeans Is Reduced under Glyphosate Use. Journal of Plant Nutrition 33, no. 12 : 1860-73.  http://www.tandfonline.com
  1. Zobiole, L. H. S., R. S. de Oliveira, R. J. Kremer, J. Constantin, C. M. Bonato, and A. S. Muniz. (2010) Water Use Efficiency and Photosynthesis of Glyphosate-Resistant Soybean as Affected by Glyphosate. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 97, no. 3: 182-93.  http://www.sciencedirect.com
  1. Zobiole L.H.S., Oliveira R.S., Visentainer J.V., Kremer R.J., Bellaloui N., Yamada T.(2010) Glyphosate affects seed composition in glyphosate-resistant soybean. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58(7),45174522.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  1. Luiz Henrique Saes Zobiole & Rubem Silvério de Oliveira Jr & Don Morgan Huber & Jamil Constantin & César de Castro & Fábio Alvares de Oliveira & Adilson de Oliveira Jr. (2010) Glyphosate reduces shoot concentrations of mineral nutrients in glyphosate-resistant soybeans Plant Soil 328:57–69.  http://www.dag.uem
  1. Zobiole, L.H., Oliveira, R.S., Kremer, R.J., Constantin, J., Yamada, T., Castro, C., Oliveira, F.A., Oliveria, A. (2010) Effect of Glyphosate on Symbiotic N2 Fixation and Nickel Concentration in Glyphosate-Resistant Soybean. Applied Soil Ecology. 44:176-180.  http://naldc.nal.usda.gov
  1. Zobiole, L. H. S., R. S. Oliveira, J. Constantin, D. F. Biffe, and R. J. Kremer. (2010) Use of Exogenous Amino Acid to Prevent Glyphosate Injury in Glyphosate-Resistant Soybean. Planta Daninha 28, no. 3 (Jul-Sep): 643-53.  http://www.scielo.br
  1. Zobiole, L. H. S., Bonini, E. A., de Oliveira Jr, R. S., Kremer, R. J., & Ferrarese-Filho, O. (2010). Glyphosate affects lignin content and amino acid production in glyphosate-resistant soybean. Acta physiologiae plantarum, 32(5), 831-837.  http://link.springer.com
  1. Zobiole, LHS, Kremer, RJ, Oliveira, RS & Constantin, J. (2011) Glyphosate affects chlorophyll, nodulation and nutrient accumulation of”second generation” glyphosate- resistant soybean(Glycine max L.) Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 99:53-60.  http://www.sciencedirect.com
  1. Zobiole LH, Kremer RJ, Oliveira RS Jr, Constantin J. (2011) Glyphosate affects micro-organisms in rhizospheres of glyphosate-resistant soybeans. J Appl Microbiol. Jan;110(1):118-27.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  1. Zobiole, L. H. S., R. S. Oliveira, J. Constantin, and D. F. Biffe. (2011) Prevention of Rr Soybean Injuries Caused by Exogenous Supply of Aminoacids. Planta Daninha 29, no. 1: 195-205.  http://www.scielo.br
  1. Zolla, L., Rinalducci, S., Antonioli, P., Righetti, P.G.(2008) Proteomics as a complementary tool for identifying unintended side effects occurring intransgenic maize seeds as a result of genetic modifications. Journal of Proteome Research 7,18501861.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  1. Alan Mario Zuffo, Fabiano André Petter, Júlio Cézar Azevedo Nóbrega, Leandro Pereira Pacheco, Francisco Alcântara Neto, Fabrício Ribeiro Andrade (2014) Microbiological attributes in a latosol in glyphosate application under water deficit conditions. African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol.9(32), pp. 2495-2505, August 2014  http://www.academicjournals.org
  1. Zwahlen C, Hilbeck A, Gugerli P, Nentwig W. (2003) Degradation of the Cry1Ab protein within transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn tissue in the field. Mol Ecol. Mar;12(3):765-75.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  1. Zwahlen C, Hilbeck A, Howald R and Nentwig W. (2003) Effects of transgenic Bt corn litter on the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. Molecular Ecology 12(8):1077-1086.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  1. Zwahlen C, Andow DA. (2005) Field evidence for the exposure of ground beetles to Cry1Ab from transgenic corn. Environ Biosafety Res. Apr-Jun;4(2):113-7.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov