UNITED STATES (VOP TODAY NEWS) — The Pentagon’s Joint Special Operations University has published a 250-page report detailing US interference in the affairs of other states.
The author of the document, a former US Special Forces officer, analyzes 47 missions aimed at destabilizing the situation or changing the regime in different countries, writes the site of RT.
This document indicates that all American Presidents since the Second World War have resorted to such operations. According to the author, the country’s secret services used criminal methods, including acts of diversion and assassinations. Experts point out that the White House does not intend to give up this practice.
The report published by the Joint Special Operations University at the Pentagon has 250 pages. It reveals that US secret interference takes different forms, from assistance to civil resistance movements to covert militarized operations and to broader military activities using non-traditional methods to support ordinary military campaigns.
The author of this document, Will Irwin, is a former US Special Forces officer. In his 28-year military career, he has been involved in operations in the United States, Europe, South America, and Asia, and has worked for a few years with the United States Special Operations Unified Command.
At the beginning of this report titled “Supporting Resistance: Strategic Purpose and Effectiveness,” Will Irwin points out that in writing this work he only relied on its own opinions and judgments, and stresses that they may not coincide with the position of the Pentagon and other US official institutions.
The author of the document separated American special operations into three categories: destabilization, taxation and regime change. 68% of all the missions analyzed relate to the first; and the remaining 32% is evenly split between tax and plan change transactions.
In total, Will Irwin analyzed 47 Pentagon operations targeting different states between 1941 and 2003.
The preface to this work was written by the former head of the US Army Special Forces Command (2008-2012), retired General John F. Mulholland Jr. According to him, the Second World War was chosen as a starting point because this conflict has “changed everything” by strengthening the US position as “leader of the free world”.
In addition, during the Second World War, the United States created the first unified intelligence service in national history: the Strategic Services Office – which will later give birth to the CIA.
Of the 47 operations cited, the author estimates that 23 were successful, and 20 failed.
“In total, since 1940 and to date, nearly 70% of the aid operations for resistance have been conducted for subversive purposes. In other cases the operations were conducted almost equally for the purpose of imposing and overthrowing the power. In 23 of the 47 cases studied, we concluded that the operations had achieved their objective. Two cases were judged partially successful. 20 cases were recognized as a failure, “notes the document.
The author could not pronounce definitively on two other operations of the Second World War because the victory was won by the allies before these missions bring results.
According to the author of the text, most operations were conducted in wartime, knowing that in these circumstances the percentage of success was twice as high compared to missions in peacetime. In addition, Will Irwin cites statistics indicating that aid to the resistance was more effective if it was direct support for a military campaign.
Moreover, according to the author’s observations, the operations are not very effective when the resistance tries to overthrow the regime. Successful missions are more likely if their goal is subversive work. After the Cold War, only three out of seven resistance campaigns were successful, with two of them aimed at overthrowing power, the author says.
At the same time, Will Irwin writes that support for civilian resistance is more likely to succeed than aid to militarized rebels.
The “secret status” of contemporary missions
The author states that he did not study all known Washington operations.
“The US-backed coups (like the events in Iran in 1953 or in Guatemala in 1954) were not studied because they were not legitimate protest movements. The document also does not deal with ongoing transactions, given the confidential status of the information and its uncertain outcome,” Will Irwin writes.
According to him, every American president since the Second World War, at a certain stage of his mandate, provided support to protest or rebel forces in other countries.
“Even American presidents who did not approve of such an activity before their election were forced to use it after their inauguration,” says the author.
All the operations mentioned in the monograph have one circumstance in common. The author writes that the US secret service acted against states that were under the administration of “occupying and hostile forces” or an “authoritarian repressive regime”.
“Clandestine armies, diversions, assassinations”
The author indicates that many such operations were carried out during the US-USSR confrontation during the Cold War, in which the United States had relied on subversion. The author relates in particular to this category the American activities in Romania in 1946 and 1949-1953, in Yugoslavia in 1948-1949 and in Poland in 1950-1952.
The US secret service recruited agents from European citizens displaced during the Second World War to send them back to their country after training to incite mutinies.
The report states that the US National Security Council’s 10/2 directive adopted in 1948 marked the beginning of a series of covert operations against the USSR around the world. The fulfillment of these missions was handled by the Political Coordination Office within the CIA created in 1947.
One of Washington’s main demands on the performer was the ability to organize and maintain “resistance movements, clandestine armies, acts of diversion and assassinations”.
According to the author, the mission of the Office of Political Coordination was to “liberate the Eastern European countries from the Communists” and to restore the pre-war borders of the USSR.
“To break in behind the Iron Curtain”
As Will Irwin explains, in 1948 Ukraine became one of the targets of the US secret service activity. At the time, two representatives of nationalist movements fled the Soviet Union and spoke to US representatives. They expected to secure Washington’s support for an anti-communist resistance movement. They were eventually recruited by a CIA structure and then followed special training. It was finally decided to send the diversion agents to Ukraine by air.
According to the author of the report, in 1949 the plane carrying these agents broke the border of the USSR and was detected by Soviet radar, but no interception took place. Subsequently, these individuals recruited by the CIA reported that they had arrived at their destination. However, the Americans concluded that the two saboteurs had been eliminated and that they were not the authors of this message.
For five years, says Will Irwin, the United States has sent dozens of other agents to Ukraine in the same way. According to the author, almost all were apprehended.
Later, the CIA admitted that its attempts to break into the Iron Curtain using Ukrainian agents had been “failed and tragic”. The author cites similar examples of saboteur infiltration in the Baltic Republics, Soviet Moldova, and Poland – all of which have not been successful.
In addition, the author mentions the failure of US operations in Cuba in the years 1960-1965, when Washington intended to overthrow Fidel Castro.
As the author of the report indicates, the American campaign in Cuba was divided into three stages, the first of which was the failed invasion of the Bay of Pigs. Will Irwin notes that expenses for the mission had increased from $ 4 million to $ 46 million.
At the time, nearly 1,500 US-trained agents, mostly Cuban emigrants, had landed in the bay. However, the resistance of troops loyal to Castro had crushed the pro-American forces, and soon nearly 1,200 men surrendered.
But the USA did not stop there. The author tells the following campaign, called MONGOOSE. Will Irwin describes it as an “aggressive mix of militarized activity, industrial sabotage and psychological operations to contribute to the mutiny”.
Between 1961 and 1963, the Pentagon sent dozens of teams to Cuba to carry out operations on the island. The author of the report believes that during this mission the Cuban resistance forces were supplied with arms and ammunition, while “extending the life of the dreams of freedom”. Knowing that this activity did not bring any factual result.
“To undermine the influence of the USSR”
Among the most successful operations, the author mentions support for the Polish union union, Solidarity, between 1981 and 1989.
“The purpose of the support program was twofold: to promote democracy in Poland and undermine the influence of the USSR in a crucial satellite state. It was conducted in parallel with the Mujahideen support operation in Afghanistan and was an element of two-pronged conflict whose consequences changed the course of history, “Will Irwin writes.
The author emphasizes that these two campaigns “played a central role in the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the subsequent destruction of the Soviet Union”.
After sending Soviet troops to Afghanistan, Washington began providing weapons to the rebel-mujahideen, as well as financial and advisory support.
The White House intended to turn Afghanistan into a “political and economic swamp” for Soviet forces and “make the USSR pay for Vietnam.” Officially, this program implied a policy of opposition to Soviet expansion.
“The US has tarnished their image themselves”
In an interview with RT, the president of the Association for International Strategic Studies Gregory Copley notes that in the end the US contributed to the development of radical movements in Afghanistan and got stuck in that country.
“In launching the war against the Taliban, the United States lost in Central Asia its close partnership and all its strategic advantages. They lost all the trust they had in Afghanistan. America has degraded itself the image and authority of its strategic forces, “says Gregory Copley.
The report is a kind of textbook for the preparation of future Special Forces officers of the US military, told RT the military expert Alexei Leonov, editor of the magazine Arsenal Otechestva.
“Because they are so closely analyzing the operations, it is nothing more than an exchange of experience for the preparation of representatives of the Special Operations Forces. Then they will apply their knowledge in practice,” says the expert.
According to Vladimir Batiouk, chief researcher at the Institute of the United States and Canada, the focus of the report is the American ideology that America is an exclusive country.
“When America spreads its values and ideals, especially by force of arms, in their eyes it is not a violation of international law or an interference in the internal affairs of other States. They think it’s wonderful and America should be proud of it, not ashamed of it,” says the expert.
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